M.A.Padmanabha Rao, PhD (AIIMS)



Ozone layer does not exist at all

Ozone hole is a false belief

Greenhouse effect and formation ozone hole causing ill health to people became serious global issues of this century since depletion of ozone was felt in Earth’s atmosphere in stratosphere ozone around polar regions [1].However, ozone layer 20 to 33 km height does not exists at all, according to the latest breakthrough research reported by the author in 2015 on how temperatures are caused in various atmospheric layers above earth (2). Therefore, the question of ozone hole does not arise, when ozone layer itself does not exist.

UV from 33 to 48 km height does not reach earth

Moreover, UV is believed to leak through ozone hole, reach earth and cause ill effects on humans and other living beings. In contrast, UV exists in a solar layer at a height of 33 to 48 km above earth. Notably, UV cannot go beyond 33 km height and reach earth. It is because of the fact that the current study has evidently shown that each wavelength or energy go with specific velocity and reach finite distance in space.

The traditional wisdom on greenhouse gases causing variation in the atmospheric temperatures is not true. And, low temperatures in Stratosphere believed to have been caused by ozone is also not true. In contrast, the author has shown, solar UV at 33 to 48 km height dips the atmospheric temperature from zero to minus 42 Degees Centigade, while Extreme UV (EUV) at 20 to 33 km height causes further dip in temperature to minus 58 degrees Centigarde.

Arctic ozone hole refuted

In 2005, scientists claimed 2004’s huge Arctic ozone hole to solar wind activity Nature ,ref 100). In 2015, the author has explained why North and South poles receive excessive solar UV.The solar gamma, beta and X-rays emissions, when ultimately reach below 10 km height above earth get attracted by earth’s gravity, termed Vemuluru Effect (2015, both papers). However, low energy solar gamma, beta and X-rays emissions are attracted towards North and South poles and generate more of EUV than UV, which causes freezing temperatures by a previously unknown atomic phenomenon, Padmanabha Rao Effect.

Greenhouse effect challenged

High energy solar gamma, beta and X-rays emissions are attracted towards tropical regions towards equator, resulting in enough Sunlight and heat produced by near infrared radiation. Therefore, increase in the temperature of lower atmosphere known as ‘global warming’ is not due to greenhouse gases such water vapor, methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


Each one of the atmospheric layers is occupied by a particular solar radiation.

 2015 paper

The current successful explanation on variation in atmospheric temperatureswith height does not support thetraditional wisdom that absorption of UV and X-rays by ozone, greenhouse gases vary the temperatures.

The current paper is further advancement to three breakthroughs madelately in physics:Discovery of Sun’s Bharat Radiation emission causing Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and UV dominantoptical radiation; discovery of Self-Sustained 235U Fission causing Sunlight by Padmanabha Rao Effect; anddiscoveryof superluminal velocities of X-rays and Bharat Radiation challenging the validity of Einstein’s formula E= mc^2 [2, 3,4].

Ozone layer absorbing UV, and greenhouse gases such as water vapor, methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere absorbing most of the Earth’s emitted infrared radiation are the most popular views of the scientists today[5-9].Precise explanation on temperature variation at different heights was not possible for previous researchers by mere absorption of UV, near infrared and X-ray radiations by oxygen, ozone and greenhouse gases.

Solar emissions

The successful explanation of temperatures measurements withheight by previous researchers in figs 4, and 7 implies that actually Sun successively emits beta, gamma and X-rayemissions, Bharat Radiation, EUV. UV, visible light, and near infrared radiation emissions, and all those solaremissions travel with specific velocities according to their wavelengths or energies.

Total absorption of UV by ozone layer opposed: Fig. 9 shows athick ozone (O3)layer existsin theStratosphere approximately at the height 50 km to 20 km and believed to absorb most of the Sun’s UV, protects thus life on Earth from harmful effects, on excessive exposure to UV.The fact that UV is unable to go down below 20 km height is not due to absorption by ozone, but because of its specific velocity as explained in the following.

UV from 48 to 33 km height:

Fig.7 shows that by virtue of lower wavelengths than visible light, UV goes further down to around 33 km height and lowers temperatures from around 0°C to around -42 °C. 

EUVfrom 33 to 20 km height

In comparison to UV, the EUV with very low wavelengths travels further down to 20 km height and lowers temperatures further to around -58°C. Therefore this fall of temperature is notdue to part played by ozone. On extending the results observed with radioisotopes in fig.5 to solar flare, low beta, gamma and X-ray energies of some fission products present in an intense solar flare might have caused relatively high EUV and UV intensities [table, 4]. Periodical variations in low temperatures at 20 to 48 km height depends upon how intense is the solar flare; solar beta, gamma and X-ray energies; and in turn the resulting EUV and UV intensities.

Greenhouse effect

The most popular view for moderate temperatures in Troposphere is the Greenhouse effect. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases such as water vapor, methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere absorb most of the Earth’s emitted infrared radiation and also restrict the outward passage of emitted radiation, resulting intoincrease in the temperature of the lower atmosphere known as “global warming” [19,20].

Reflection from the ground is primarily visible light with a maximum radiation peak at a wavelength of 555 nm (green light). The relatively small amount of energy radiated from the earth at an average ambient temperature of 17°C at its surface consists of infrared radiation with a peak concentration at 970 nm which are invisible to the human eye[7,11].

Previously unknown gravitational force of radiation

The author postulates existence of gravitational force of electromagnetic radiation such as gamma ray, X-ray, and light photons, and particulate matter including electrons and protons.

The research paper

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth’s atmosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth’s polar regions.[1] The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. There are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events in addition to these stratospheric events.

The main cause of ozone depletion and the ozone hole is manufactured chemicals, especially manufactured halocarbonrefrigerantssolventspropellants and foam-blowing agents (chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HCFCs, halons), referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). These compounds are transported into the stratosphere by the winds after being emitted at the surface.[2] Once in the stratosphere, they release halogen atoms through photodissociation, which catalyze the breakdown of ozone (O3) into oxygen (O2).[3] Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of halocarbons increased

Ozone depletion and the ozone hole have generated worldwide concern over increased cancer risks and other negative effects. The ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths of ultraviolet light (UV light) from passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. These wavelengths cause skin cancersunburn and cataracts, which were projected to increase dramatically as a result of thinning ozone, as well as harming plants and animals. These concerns led to the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which bans the production of CFCs, halons and other ozone-depleting chemicals.

The ban came into effect in 1989. Ozone levels stabilized by the mid-1990s and began to recover in the 2000s. Recovery is projected to continue over the next century, and the ozone hole is expected to reach pre-1980 levels by around 2075.[4] The Montreal Protocol is considered the most successful international environmental agreement to date.

  1. “Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer”. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010 (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2015.

  2. Jump up^Andino, Jean M. (October 21, 1999). “Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are heavier than air, so how do scientists suppose that these chemicals reach the altitude of the ozone layer to adversely affect it?”. Scientific American.

  3. Jump up^“Part III. The Science of the Ozone Hole”. Retrieved March 5, 2007.

On March 3, 2005, the journal Nature[100] published an article linking 2004’s unusually large Arctic ozone hole to solar wind activity.  (Ref “Solar wind hammers the ozone layer”. Retrieved May 28, 2016.)

First observation[edit]

G.M.B. Dobson (Exploring the Atmosphere, 2nd Edition, Oxford, 1968) mentioned that when springtime ozone levels in the Antarctic over Halley Bay were first measured in 1956, he was surprised to find that they were ~320 DU, or about 150 DU below spring Arctic levels of ~450 DU. These were at that time the only known Antarctic ozone values available. What Dobson describes is essentially the baseline from which the ozone hole is measured: actual ozone hole values are in the 150–100 DU range.

The discrepancy between the Arctic and Antarctic noted by Dobson was primarily a matter of timing: during the Arctic spring ozone levels rose smoothly, peaking in April, whereas in the Antarctic they stayed approximately constant during early spring, rising abruptly in November when the polar vortex broke down.

Location of hole[edit]

Some people thought that the ozone hole should be above the sources of CFCs. However, CFCs are well mixed globally in the troposphere and stratosphere. The reason for occurrence of the ozone hole above Antarctica is not because there are more CFCs concentrated but because the low temperatures help form polar stratospheric clouds.[122] In fact, there are findings of significant and localized “ozone holes” above other parts of the earth.[123][better source needed]


CFC weight[edit]

Since CFC molecules are heavier than air (nitrogen or oxygen), it is commonly believed that the CFC molecules cannot reach the stratosphere in significant amount.[114] However, atmospheric gases are not sorted by weight; the forces of wind can fully mix the gases in the atmosphere. Lighter CFCs are evenly distributed throughout the turbosphere and reach the upper atmosphere,[115] although some of the heavier CFCs are not evenly distributed.[116]

  1. Silverman, Amy (May 4, 1995). “Freon Easy”. Phoenix News. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

  2. Jump up^FAQ, part I, section 1.3.

Ozone depletion and global warming

  • The same CO2radiative forcing that produces global warmingis expected to cool the stratosphere.[111] This cooling, in turn, is expected to produce a relative increase in ozone (O

    3) depletion in polar area and the frequency of ozone holes.[112]

  1. Hegerl, Gabriele C.; et al. “Understanding and Attributing Climate Change”(PDF). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. p. 675. Retrieved February 1, 2008.

There are various areas of linkage between ozone depletion and global warming science:

Results from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration‘s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory show that above 20 km (12 mi), the greenhouse gases dominate the cooling.[113]

  • Conversely, ozone depletion represents a radiative forcing of the climate system. There are two opposing effects: Reduced ozone causes the stratosphere to absorb less solar radiation, thus cooling the stratosphere while warming the troposphere; the resulting colder stratosphere emits less long-wave radiation downward, thus cooling the troposphere. Overall, the cooling dominates; the IPCC concludes “observed stratospheric O
    losses over the past two decades have caused a negative forcing of the surface-troposphere system[14] of about −0.15 ± 0.10 watts per square meter (W/m2).[86]

  • One of the strongest predictions of the greenhouse effect is that the stratosphere will cool.[111]Although this cooling has been observed, it is not trivial to separate the effects of changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases and ozone depletion since both will lead to cooling.

Tibet ozone hole[edit]

As winters that are colder are more affected, at times there is an ozone hole over Tibet. In 2006, a 2.5 million square kilometer ozone hole was detected over Tibet.[107

Ref 107 : “Earth news: Chinese Scientists Find New Ozone Hole Over Tibet”. May 4, 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

Arctic ozone hole[edit]

On March 3, 2005, the journal Nature[100] published an article linking 2004’s unusually large Arctic ozone hole to solar wind activity.

On March 15, 2011, a record ozone layer loss was observed, with about half of the ozone present over the Arctic having been destroyed.[101][102][103] The change was attributed to increasingly cold winters in the Arctic stratosphere at an altitude of approximately 20 km (12 mi), a change associated with global warming in a relationship that is still under investigation.[102] By March 25, the ozone loss had become the largest compared to that observed in all previous winters with the possibility that it would become an ozone hole.[104]

After a 1976 report by the United States National Academy of Sciences concluded that credible scientific evidence supported the ozone depletion hypothesis[56] a few countries, including the United States, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, moved to eliminate the use of CFCs in aerosol spray cans.[57]

Ref 57  Morrisette, Peter M. (1989). “The Evolution of Policy Responses to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion”. Natural Resources Journal. 29: 793–820. Retrieved April 20, 2010.

 Effects on animals[edit]

A November 2010 report by scientists at the Institute of Zoology in London found that whales off the coast of California have shown a sharp rise in sun damage, and these scientists “fear that the thinning ozone layer is to blame”.[52] The study photographed and took skin biopsies from over 150 whales in the Gulf of California and found “widespread evidence of epidermal damage commonly associated with acute and severe sunburn”,


Biological effects[edit]

The main public concern regarding the ozone hole has been the effects of increased surface UV radiation on human health.

UV is not present abundantly everywhere on earth’s surface in tropical countries like India particularly in cities like Delhi, Jaipur, Chennai, Trivendrum.

Increased UV[edit]

Ozone, while a minority constituent in Earth’s atmosphere, is responsible for most of the absorption of UVB radiation. The amount of UVB radiation that penetrates through the ozone layer decreases exponentially with the slant-path thickness and density of the layer. When stratospheric ozone levels decrease, higher levels of UVB reach the Earth’s surface.[1][40]UV-driven phenolic formation in tree rings has dated the start of ozone depletion in northern latitudes to the late 1700s.[41]

Ref 1: Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer”. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010 (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2015.

Ref 40 :

Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion”. EPA. Retrieved September 26, 2013.


For over a century, scientists thought that ozone collects in a layer in the stratosphere, roughly 12 to 18 miles above the surface, and absorbs ultraviolet (UV) light (1, PSI). We know ozone is a very heavy gas made from three oxygen atoms (O3) and in the atmosphere is able to absorb the sun’s rays (see graphic below).

The ozone ‘hole’ was the big environmental scare story in the 1980’s, before man-made global warming. The ‘hole’ was blamed on human emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other related industrial chemicals which were then banned by global treaty (Montreal protocol) in 1987 (see satellite images below).

But it was not until thespace age and earth-observing satellites in the 1970’s that humans were able to more objectively monitor our planet’s surface and make precise measurements.Those measurements did confirm an ‘ozone hole’ over Antarctica. But how long had it been there? Noone knew.

Unfortunately, we were all too trusting of government ‘scientists’ back then. At the time many of us believed theirstories that the ‘hole’ was man-made. Now we know those very same atmospheric scientists who today clamor about CO2 and man-made global warming were first on the bandwagon of that frightful ozone problem.

Quickly, grant-chasing scientists got the mass media triggered. Newspapers ran stories of fears for the scientists’ wellbeing at the South Pole;those ‘brave’ ozone researchers faced becoming “blind and horrifically sunburned.” (NY TimesOct 27, 1987).

In effect, the world banned the production and consumption of all those manufactured compounds blamed for depleting ozone in the stratosphere–chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform.

Alarmists touted the ban as an ecological victory to save the planet and spent decades building a carefully-crafted narrative, one such example, tells us:

“In 1984 British Antarctic Survey scientists, Joseph Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin, discovered a recurring springtime Antarctic ozone hole. Their paper was published in Nature, May 1985, the study summarized data that had been collected by the British Antarctic Survey showing that ozone levels had dropped to 10% below normal January levels for Antarctica.”

But how did anyone know what was ‘normal’ when there was so little data before the satellite era?

Regardless, Eco-warriors argued the ‘hole’ would thus repair itself naturally and the planet saved and kept piling on the media pressure.

Newspapers and TV worked hand in hand with the alarmists. We were told about theblind sheep—increased UV radiation was thought to cause cataracts—and yarns about increased skin cancer. “It’s like AIDS from the sky,”a terrified environmentalisttold Newsweek’s gullible staff.

Even a compliant NASA (1992) cried that without ozone in the atmosphere, “the Sun’s intense UV rays would sterilize the Earth’s surface.” But critics noted that NASA’s warnings “were exquisitely timed to bolster the agency’s budget requests” (Bailey, 1993).

In truth, most people saw nothing of any ‘hole’ until it was detected and depicted so graphically by satellite. For all we know, the ‘hole’ may have been coming and going for thousands, if not millions of years. There just is no hard evidence either way. But, we do know those CFC’s are heavier than air, so not so likely that they could rise up and stay in the atmosphere anyway. Crucially, those heavy CFC’s break down under UV radiation. The higher those gases ascended, the more likely they would break down before reaching the ozone. So, where’s the harm.

Thankfully, well-qualified, dedicated researchers, such as Tony Heller (see: ‘Twenty-Five Years Since The Ozone Hole Killed Us All’) show hard evidence exposing the lies behind the fake science. Heller reports, “There never was a Northern Hemisphere Ozone Hole, and the one over Antarctica has not changed in size since the CFC ban was implemented.”

My latest research unfolds Ozone layer does not exists

Definite evidences on absence of ozone layer has come from the fresh interpretation of the data reported by previous scientists on temperatures of various atmospheric layers above earth (2015 papers). Though temperature measurements made at various atmospheric layers seemed to be reliable and noteworthy. However, they faced difficulty in interpreting their own data, since what causes those atmospheric layers remained puzzling.

My approach to the current problem is based on two breakthrough findings reported for the first time in 2013 (4,5).

(i)   In 2015, I could succeed in explaining solar emissions are primarily responsible for formation of atmospheric layers. A chain of solar emissions are successively released instantaneously from fission fragments (radioisotopes) present in solar flare, immediately after 235uranium fission taken place on Sun’s core surface.Fission fragments (radioisotopes) in solar flare primarily produce gamma, beta, and characteristic X-ray emissions (6,2013 uranium fission). These energetic solar ionizing radiations in keV or MeV energies generate Bharat Radiation with wavelengths from 12.87 to 31 nm with energy slightly higher than that of EUV just at eV level from the same excited atom by previously unknown atomic phenomenon, now known as Padmanabha Rao effect (7, BJP 2010, 8 Bharat radiation). Bharat Radiation in turn produce, Extreme UV (EUV), UV(above 80%), visible light and near infrared radiation. In nutshell, I have defined the chain of solar emissions as γ-, β, and characteristic X-ray emissions, Bharat Radiation, EUV, UV, visible light and near infrared radiation from fission fragments like 137Cs in solar flare. Most significantly, each one of these solar emissions leave Sun with the velocity depending upon its energy or wavelength,reaches certain distance in space and finally occupies one specific atmospheric layer.

(ii)   I also succeeded in establishing the fact that elementary particles including beta particles from fission products and electromagnetic radiation including gamma and X-rays at higher energy travel with greater velocity and reach maximum distance in space. This is based on my modified Einstein’s formula, E= V2(2013, superluminal).

Fig. 1. The Average Temperature Profile of Earth’s Atmosphere‟ reproduced here is from Ref. 5. The measurements of atmospheric temperatures at various heights above earth made by previous scientists were correct, but they faced difficulty in interpretation of their own data, in explain n what causes the specific temperature at each layer.

The following describes that each Earth’s atmosphere layer is occupied by a specific solar radiation, depending upon its energy. The γ, β, and X-ray emissions owing to their high energy at keV or MeV level go at maximum velocity reach maximum distance up to 84-54 km and form a ring of ionizing radiations around Earth as shown in figure 2. Their daughter radiation, Bharat Radiation with relatively low energy just at eV level can reach only up to 90 to 84 km height and form a ring dominant in Bharat Radiation. EUV with lower energy than Bharat Radiation reaches 100 to 90 km height and form a ring dominant in EUV.

That is why at and above 90 km, solar spectrum recorded by Woods et al showed only three emissions: X-rays, Bharat radiation, and EUV (3). UV with further low energy reaches up to 110 to 100 km height and form a ring dominant in EUV. Visible light with less energy reach only up to 500 to 110 km and form a ring dominant in visible light. The latest study thus reports visible light is present as two distinct layers around earth at 500 to 100 km height and below 10 km height.  Near infrared radiation occupies close to Sun since it has least energy and cannot travel much distance beyond 500 km distance from earth. Near infrared radiation present very close to Sun is responsible for very high temperatures of Sun’s corona.

In 2015, I have reported how temperature of atmosphere layer is determined by the solar radiation present. Solar UV dips the temperature to minus zero degrees Centigrade, while EUV causes further steep fall in temperature. Bharat radiation and visible light maintain almost the same temperatures caused by EUV at one atmospheric layer above. In contrast, near infrared radiation raises the temperatures.

Above 500 km height, near infrared radiation raises temperature from 5000C to 20000C. Intensity of near infrared radiation, which is dominant above 500 km height steeply falls from 5000C to 2500C as height reduces from 500 km to 110 km above Earth. The relatively energetic visible light dominates the layer of 500 to 110 km, but do not show any influence on temperature and simply allows temperature to fall to 2500C. In the next layer from 110 to 100 km height, the highly abundant UV tends the temperature to fall from 2500C to minus -850C. In the next layer at 100 to 90 km height, highly abundant EUV tends temperature to fall steeply further from minus – 850C to minus -1250C. In the next layer at 90 km to 84 km height, the dominant Bharat Radiation do not bring any change in temperature, so maintains nearly the same as that of EUV at minus -1200C. Solar gamma, beta, X-rays once gain produce chain of emissions that occupy 5 atmospheric layers up to Earth’s surface.

At 10 km height, gravitational waves heading γ, β, and X-ray emissions form a link with earth’s gravity, as a result, γ, β, and X-ray emissions acquire energy. It is termed Vemuluru effect. Due to gain in energy, γ, β, and X-ray emissions generate visible light and near infrared radiation, which raises the atmospheric temperature just to -580 to 17 0C within 10 km height above earth that helps sustenance of life.

Figure 2: Schematic diagram of temperatures at various atmospheric layers above Earth measured by previous scientists (7, 8). In 2015, the author reported each atmospheric layer is occupied by a specific solar emission, depending upon energy. The highly energetic γ, β, and X-ray emissions reach maximum distance up to 84 to 54 km and occupy layer there, while Bharat Radiation, EUV, UV, and visible light occupy 4 layers in the decreasing order of energy. The near infrared radiation due to minimum energy fails to go far away, so remains in Sun’s corona and reach up to 500 km height above Earth. Once again, the next 5 layers are occupied by chain of solar emissions up to 10 km height (9).


  1. UV is present in the atmospheric layer at 33 to 48 km height above earth (fig.2). According to the current study, UV does not have sufficient energy to go towards earth beyond 48 km height. Therefore, UV leaking through ozone layer, reaching earth and causing ill effects on humans is totally a false concept.

  2. It is widely believed ozone exists in a layer in the stratosphere at about 12 to 18 miles height above earth, and absorbs UV. Excessive use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroformis said to deplete ozone in the stratosphere and produce a hole in ozone layer through which UV leaksto the earth. Contrarily, fig.2 does not show existence of ozone layer at about 12 to 18 miles height above earth. Instead, at that height Bharat radiation exists. Therefore, existence of ozone layer is not true. So the question of formation of a hole in it does not arise.


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